In recent years, with the continuous growth of car ownership, the road carrying capacity has reached full in many cities, and traffic safety, travel power, and environmental maintenance have become increasingly prominent. Under this big scene, the car networking skills became a key point and hot spot at that time because it was hoped to have greatly eased traffic congestion, improved transportation power, and improved existing road transportation capabilities. Europe, the United States, Japan and other countries and regions have conducted research and application of intelligent transportation and vehicle information services earlier.
Internet of Vehicles and Internet of Things
The Internet of Things is a ubiquitous information-based channel that uses the Internet as the main body, is compatible with various information skills, and provides customizable information services for different areas of society. The concept of IoT and the internal development of information skills and the continuous evolution of people's information needs at different stages, due to the wide range of access goals, the complexity of application skills, the uncertainty of service content, and the understanding and seeking of different social groups The difference in the above, it is difficult to use the existing concepts and norms to accurately and completely give the prestige definition. However, the concept of the Internet of Vehicles has been recognized by the industry because of its clear service goals and clear application requirements, relatively balanced use of skills and categories, implementation and evaluation of norms, social application and processing requirements. It is the most important branch of the Internet of Things that can break the application category first, and it has become the main point and hot topic of the present discussion.
From the Internet of Things, the vehicle network is the basic information unit, to improve the transportation power, improve the road traffic situation, broaden the information interaction method, and then complete the intelligent traffic management, so that the original concept of the Internet of Things skills in modern transportation The environment is detailed. This paper is based on the theory and model of the Internet of Things, to build an intelligent transportation system dominated by information skills, and to discuss the basic concepts, architecture, communication architecture and key skills of the Internet of Vehicles.
Basic concepts and classification of car networking
The concept of car networking is the end of the concept of IoT for professional use. The Internet of Things is based on the Internet, using radio frequency identification (RFID), wireless data communication and other technologies. It is a network system that covers everything in the world, and automatically identifies and interconnects and shares information. The Internet of Things does not deliberately focus on the types of objects, but more on the acquisition and exchange of physical international information to complete the exchange of information on things and things that are not touched by the Internet at the time. The Internet of Vehicles is the landing point for the concept of the Internet of Things, limiting this detailed physical international to cars, roads, people and cities. The vehicle network uses the RFID tag loaded on the vehicle to obtain the vehicle's travel characteristics and system operation information, obtains the vehicle's travel azimuth and other parameters through global positioning skills such as GPS, and realizes information transmission and sharing through wireless transmission skills such as 3G, through RFID and The sensor obtains the operation status of the traffic base equipment such as roads and bridges, and finally completes the monitoring of vehicle operation and supplies various traffic induction services through the Internet information platform.
From the point of view of skills, car networking skills are mainly electronic tag skills, azimuth positioning skills, wireless transmission skills, digital broadcast skills, network service channel skills.
From the perspective of system interaction, there are mainly vehicle and vehicle communication systems, vehicle and people communication systems, vehicle and road communication systems, vehicle and induction information channel communication systems, and road and induction information channel communication systems. The vehicle-to-vehicle communication system focuses on end-to-end communication between objects. This end-to-end communication allows any vehicle to be both a server and a communication terminal. The vehicle and road communication system enables the vehicle to obtain the operation status of the road base equipment early, such as whether a certain road is repairing, whether there is too much water in a bridge hole, etc., so as to facilitate the smooth passage of the vehicle. The vehicle and induction information channel communication system is an inductive channel for gathering information such as vehicle travel conditions, providing information on road conditions, vehicle monitoring and other inductive accounting information, as well as personalized information such as travel tips and safe travel. The road and inductive information channel communication system is intended to maintain the operation of the road base equipment and replace the aging and poorly operating equipment.
From the point of view of the use of point of view, car networking skills can be divided into monitoring application system, driving safety system, dynamic road condition information system, traffic assurance system. The monitoring and application system is mainly used for the operation monitoring and resolution plan support of the government department or the vehicle handling department. It is divided into two types of systems: road safety monitoring of the equipment and monitoring of vehicle travel. The monitoring of the safety situation of the road bottom equipment is mainly to obtain the inspection information returned by the monitoring equipment of the road and the bridge device on time, check the damage degree and operation of the root equipment, and provide an important reference for the maintenance of the transportation equipment. The monitoring of vehicle travel is mainly to monitor the vehicle's travel route, travel parameters, such as fuel consumption, vehicle conditions and other information, to visualize the distribution of urban traffic flow, and to provide assistance for congestion relief. The driving safety system mainly refers to the safety monitoring of the vehicle's travel process and the safety claim after analyzing the vehicle's travel behavior. In the process of vehicle travel, through the interaction of the vehicle network information, it is possible to obtain the road ahead situation and avoid the safety traffic incident. Such as automatic evasion after the attack on the front of the foggy highway. Others upload and analyze the vehicle's fuel consumption, travel conditions and other parameters, vehicle information mining at the server end, automatically provide some vehicle travel safety claims, such as whether it is required to maintain, whether it is necessary to replace a certain component. The dynamic road condition information system firstly uses the running speed of the traveling vehicle and the GPS positioning skill to obtain information on the road travel situation and complete the release of the road condition dynamic information. The traffic matters ensure that the system mainly uses the vehicle terminal detection and presentation mechanism to provide support for the detection, avoidance and guidance of the incident.
In general, the car network uses the car, road, and road base equipment as the basic nodes and information sources, and completes the information interaction through the wireless communication skills, and then completes the "car-person-road-city" reconciliation. With the development of IoT skills, as well as the development of intelligent transportation and smart cities, the concept car and system prototypes using the Internet of Vehicles skills have been vigorously developed.
Analysis of the essential skills of the Internet of Vehicles
RFID radio frequency identification skills. The Internet of Vehicles uses RFID skills combined with existing network skills, database skills, middleware skills, etc. to build an Internet of Things that is made up of many connected RFID terminals that are larger than the Internet. RFID skills are the foundation of the Internet. China's RFID lacks key center skills, especially in UHF RFID.
RFID operating principle
2. Sensing skills. Sensors and car buses are used to collect operational parameters such as vehicle and road traffic equipment. The sensing skills need to be customized according to the operating parameters of different objects. For example, the vehicle requires fuel consumption, brakes, engine and other operating parameters, while the bridge demand pressure, aging degree and other parameters. Sensing skills are key skills in completing vehicle network data collection.
3. Wireless transmission skills. The wireless transmission skill sends the data collected by the sensor to the server or other terminal, and may accept the control command to complete the long-distance manipulation of the object. As long as the skills are transmitted wirelessly, the communication and sharing of information can be completed.
4. Cloud accounting skills. Inductive processing and analysis of the collected object data, and supply various types of induction services. The car networking system obtains the services provided by cloud accounting through the network in an on-demand and easy-to-expand method.
5. Vehicle networking specification system. The norm is an important symbol of industrial aggravation. As long as the vehicle network establishes a set of easy-to-use and consistent standard system, it can complete the communication between different objects and the integration of different car networking systems, which can drive the rapid development of the car and transportation industry.
6. Vehicle network security system. It includes the security, transmitter security, transmission skill security and service end security after the information of the Internet of Vehicles. Affirmation is the condition to ensure that the Internet of Vehicles system can be quickly implemented.
7. Positioning skills. Improve the azimuth accuracy of objects in the Internet of Vehicles through GSP and wireless positioning skills. Through the improvement of positioning accuracy, the vehicle's traveling direction will be accurately obtained, and the accuracy of real-time road conditions and the accuracy of positioning of traffic things will be improved.
Car networking architecture
The perception layer, which is the comprehensive perception and collection of the vehicle itself and the traffic information on the road, is the nerve ending of the Internet of Vehicles, and is also the most obvious part of the Internet of Things in the Internet of Things. Through sensors, RFID, vehicle positioning and other skills, real-time perception of vehicle conditions and control systems, road environment, vehicles and vehicles, vehicles and people, vehicles and road infrastructure, vehicle orientation, etc., to provide a comprehensive, original terminal for vehicle network applications Information service.
The network layer integrates the data of the sensing layer by formulating a dedicated network architecture and protocol model capable of coordinating heterogeneous network communication requirements; and shielding the application layer from the type of communication network to provide a clear information transmission service for the application program; Inductive use of accounting, virtualization and other skills, make full use of existing network resources, and provide strong application support for the upper level.
With the application layer, the various applications of the Internet of Vehicles must be based on the existing network system and protocol, and compatible with the future network expansion function. The use of demand is the source of power to promote the development of vehicle networking skills. The Internet of Vehicles should complete the high-end functions such as intelligent traffic handling, vehicle safety control, traffic warning, etc., and should also provide vehicle information inquiry, information subscription, event announcement, etc. for vehicle network users. Various types of service functions.
Security, the communication features of the Internet of Vehicles limit the security and communication capabilities of the Internet of Vehicles. The security talents provide key handling and identity identification capabilities for the Internet of Vehicles to ensure the authenticity of the information of the vehicles entering the network; the security maintenance function of the supply information ensures that the data is not damaged, falsified and discarded during the transmission process; and the accurate orientation information is provided. Backtracking of the vehicle's positioning and approach; providing accurate clock information to ensure that the real-time transactions of the Internet, especially the safe use of synchronization at the moment.
Handling talents, as the control center of the Internet of Vehicles, handle the talents to supply information on the information of the incoming vehicles and road conditions, and complete the free and seamless switching between vehicles, vehicles and road infrastructure equipment and between different networks; The QoS processing of networked communication provides different network priority services according to different vehicle information and transaction types.
Internet access needs and battles
In fact, the Internet of Vehicles is a method of using Internet of Things skills. The same battle of the Internet of Things also brings challenges to the implementation of the Internet of Vehicles. Together, because of the rapid expansion of the number of vehicles, the Internet has also faced huge demands. The primary needs and challenges faced by the Internet of Vehicles are:
Consistent identification of car networking information. In order to complete the interconnection of objects, the first problem to be dealt with is the problem of consistent coding. There is a consistent item coding system for the development of the Internet of Vehicles, especially the national code coding system. This consistent item coding system is the key to the completion of information interconnection in the Internet of Vehicles system. But now because the concept of car networking has just begun, the relevant consistent coding specifications have not yet been introduced, and each demonstration prototype system establishes an independent coding and identification system according to their respective needs. This has hindered the interconnection between different systems and even different occupations in the subsequent professional circles.
IP address issue during network access. Every item in the car network needs to be addressed in the network, requiring an address. Since the IPv4 resource line will be exhausted, the transition to IPv6 is a long process. There are compatibility issues with devices, software, networks, carriers, and so on.
The degree of informatization of the collection equipment is low. Nowadays, transportation infrastructure such as roads and bridges have not been electronically processed, and their intelligence is relatively low. Traditional devices have networking capabilities through information processing such as sensors and collection devices. The information transformation of these transportation infrastructure equipment has a wide coverage, large investment and long construction period, which are all problems faced by the informationization transformation of the terminal network.
Car network information security issues. The security problem of the Internet of Vehicles comes from three aspects: the security of the traditional Internet, the security problems brought by the Internet of Things, and the security of the Internet of Vehicles. There is no specific specification for data transmission and audio communication in the Internet of Vehicles, thus lacking a consistent security maintenance system. The number of nodes in the Internet of Vehicles is huge and exists in a clustered manner, which results in data congestion when the data is transmitted by many machines. The sensory nodes in the car network are arranged in equipment such as traveling vehicles. If they are damaged by an attacker, it is easy to form a life-threatening situation and damage to road equipment. Therefore, the information integrity in the Internet of Vehicles is crucial, affecting the future development and implementation of the Internet of Vehicles.
The sophistication of the Internet of Vehicles related software and service industry chain. Nowadays, the concept of car networking has just started, and it has not yet presented more sophisticated software channels and services. Traffic occupations often require high security requirements, such as ensuring driving safety. If the relevant software and hardware channels have not passed the test of the big plan, the way out of the use of the Internet of Vehicles will be greatly reduced.
Relevant skill compatibility. The Internet of Vehicles is an integrated body of related skills, including sensor skills, recognition skills, accounting skills, software skills, nano skills, embedded intelligence skills. The incompatibility of any one skill may be weak, which will make the implementation of the entire Internet of Vehicles system difficult.
Internet of Vehicles is a brand-new network application. It is the application of Internet of Things skills in the field of intelligent transportation. It is the central foundation of the new generation of intelligent transportation system. Through analysis, we can see that the Internet of Vehicles is the development direction of the next generation intelligent transportation system, and it is a typical demonstration application of the next generation Internet in China. The car network will drive the high speed development of the car and transportation industries.
On the other hand, the Internet of Vehicles skills are also facing many challenges. Overall, the discussion of this category is still in its infancy, and the research on various key skills is still not perfect. Some of the prototype systems that have been proposed are still far from useful, and the researchers are still trying their best. Trust continues to deepen the discussion, and the Internet of Vehicles will be completed in harmony with the “car-people-road-city”.